Invitro Fertilization (IVF) is a form of assisted reproductive technology (ART). IVF is a fertilization process that involves the extraction of the woman’s eggs, retrieving a sperm sample, and then manually combining the eggs and sperm in a laboratory dish to fertilize. This results in embryo formation. The embryo is then transferred to the uterus for implantation.
BASIC STEPS IN IVF TREATMENT
Medications are prescribed to stimulate egg production. Multiple eggs are required since some eggs will fail to fertilize after retrieval and combination with sperm. Blood sample are taking for hormonal check up and a transvaginal ultrasound scanning (TVS) is used to examine the ovaries to assess for development of follicles that contain the eggs.
Eggs are retrieved through a minor surgical procedure that uses ultrasound imaging to guide a hollow needle through the pelvic cavity to remove the eggs. Pain medication in the form of mild anesthesia or sedation is provided to reduce and remove potential discomfort during the procedure.
The male produces a sample of sperm, which is prepared for combining with the eggs.
In insemination, the sperm and eggs are mixed together and stored in a laboratory dish to encourage fertilization. In some cases when the sperm is very low in quantity or quality, intra-cytoplamic sperm injection (ICSI) may be used. This procedure involves direct injection of sperm into the egg in other to achieve fertilization .The eggs are monitored to confirm that cell division is taking place. Once this occurs, the fertilized eggs are considered embryos.
Embryos are transferred into the woman’s uterus three to five days following egg retrieval and fertilization. A thin catheter or small tube is inserted into the uterus to transfer the embryos. This is normally done under ultrasound guidance. Once the procedure is successful, implantation typically occurs around six to ten days following egg retrieval.
REASONS FOR IVF TREATMENT
In vitro Fertilization (IVF) was developed to bypass problems in the fallopian tubes that prevented the natural meeting between sperm and the egg. These problems are associated with most women with reproductive issues. IVF treatment has helped various couples to achieve fertility success over various types of infertility.
Medically related issues that influence the need for an IVF treatment include:
- Ovulatory disorders including infrequent or absent ovulation e.g. PCOS
- Uterine factors like multiple factors after myomectomy with no success at natural conception
- Tubal blockage
- Previous tubal ligation for sterilization treatment
- Early menopause or premature ovarian failure, which occurs when the ovaries stop working and menstruation ends before age 40.
- Individual with genetic disorder
- Unexplained infertility
- American Society for Reproductive Medicine. (2014). Gamete and embryo donation: Deciding whether to tell.https://www.asrm.org/ factsheet.
- Human Fertilization & Embryology Authority. (2014). IVF – What is in vitro fertilization (IVF) and how does it work?
- Human Fertilization & Embryology Authority. (2014).
- Medline Plus. (2014). In vitro fertilization (IVF) http://www. Nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/007279
- Mayo Clinic. (2013, June 27). In vitro fertilization (IVF).
- https:// Monashivf.com/creat-newlife-with-ivf-heres-what-to-expect/